Real Estate

Statistics and facts of residential construction

The transformation of the soil from a strong kingdom to a liquid nation due to accelerated stress and differential settlement of the footings is called soil liquefaction.

The characteristics to take into account at the stage of architectural planning and structural arrangement of buildings for protection against earthquakes are:

a) Building configuration
b) Foundation
c) Control of openings in partitions
d) Reinforced concrete bands in masonry residential buildings.
E) Vertical reinforcement.

The protection measures against floods are:

I) Residence on riverbanks and riverbanks should be avoided.
Ii) The buildings must be built 250 meters from the sea coast / river banks.
Iii) Build adequate drainage system in all flood prone areas.
Iv) Gather the entire town or settlement on a raised platform above the high flood grade.
V) Assemble the building with a plinth level higher than the known degree of excessive flooding.

The measures taken to control land degradation in unique regions of our users are:

I) Soil erosion in mountainous areas can be controlled by creating terraces for agriculture.
Ii) Plugging of gullies through the construction of dams.
Iii) An afforestation can manipulate soil erosion on slopes.
Iv) In arid regions, education of safe-haven flora belts manipulates overgrazing through the use of animals and the development of thorny shrubs to stabilize sand dunes.
V) In semi-arid areas, conservation of humidity, weed manipulation and correct control of vacant lands.
Vi) The control of mining sports are some of the techniques to reduce land degradation.

The number one goal of earthquake resistant design is to prevent buildings from collapsing during earthquakes, for this reason, the possibility of loss of life or damage to humans in or around buildings is minimized. There are safe capabilities, which are considered in the degree of architectural and structural planning to improve its performance during the duration of the earthquake.

The natural factors responsible for landslides are:
a) If the slopes are steep.
B) If there is excessive intensity of rain.
C) If the slopes are stiff.
D) Gravity molded soil layers.
E) The rock layers are quite worn.
F) Bad drainage.

The factors responsible for landslides are:
a) Soil erosion induced by deforestation.
B) Mining and quarrying.
C) Excavation without engineering.
D) Construction without engineering.
E) Land use pattern.

If the houses cannot withstand the forces of excessive winds and storm surges, then those houses are considered prone. Generally, cyclone-prone maxima are lightweight wood-framed systems, specifically older homes where the wood has deteriorated and weakened the walls. Houses made of poorly constructed concrete blocks are also vulnerable.
Urban and rural communities on low-lying islands or in unprotected low-lying coastal areas or river floodplains are factored into cyclone risk.
Man-made elements responsible for causing landslides:
I) Soil erosion precipitated due to deforestation.
Ii) Mining and quarrying
iii) Excavation without engineering
iv) Construction without engineering.
V) Land use pattern.

The configuration of an earthquake resistant building is:

a) The building must have an easy rectangular plan.
B) Long walls must be supported by reinforced concrete columns.

Foundation of an earthquake resistant building:

a) Evaluate the liquefaction ability of the soil to prevent tilt cracking and shape failure.
B) The proper design of the foundation must be deliberate so that the building can withstand earthquakes.

Homes vulnerable to landslides are those that are located in:
a) Beneath hills with fractured rock outcrops.
B) Steep natural slopes, mainly on weak geological materials.
C) Developed slopes where septic tanks, soil absorption structures are used and land landscapes are irrigated.
D) Steep cut or fill slopes associated with production.
E) Areas in or over drainage mouths that include canyons.
F) Landslides existing in the vicinity.
The homes most prone to flooding are:
a) If biomass materials like bamboo, leaves, straw are used to build huts, then they are easily destroyed in floods and washed away.
B) Residential buildings that can be constructed with primarily earth-based fabric or using stone and brick in powder mortar.
C) Floodplains attract poor urban dwellers due to less expensive land values.
D) The occupation of regions within the alluvial plains of rivers, particularly in regions with high population, has increased vulnerability.

The effects on homes due to flooding are:

a) High speed water washes away houses.
B) Rising waters can cause homes to float from their foundations.
C) Although houses remain intact on their foundations, floods can also cause extensive damage to substances.
D) The speed of the water can erode the base of the residence which can also result in the collapse of the house.
E) Massive floating objects such as bushes, electric poles, etc., can additionally impact standing houses and cause considerable damage.
F) Other varieties of damage include wall erosion, cracks, and bulging damage to water supply, sanitation, and electrical systems.

The protection measures against floods are:

a) Residing on the banks of rivers and on the slopes of river banks should be avoided.
B) The buildings must be built 250 meters from the sea coast / river banks.
C) Build adequate drainage systems in all flood-prone regions.
D) To mount the entire village or settlement on a raised platform above the high flood grade.
E) Mount the building with a skirting level better than the recognized excessive flood level.

The effects of cyclones on buildings are:

I) Punching and blowing of corrugated iron roof sheets attached to steel trusses.
Ii) Brittle breakage of asbestos-cement sheets from the roofs of commercial sheds; the fault of these leaves is generally ridges and ends of the gables.
Iii) Failure of large commercial buildings with light roof decks and long / tall walls due to added internal and external pressures.
Iv) Failure of roof and wall factors along the gable ends, especially due to excessive internal pressures.
V) Reversal of failures of partitions composed of numerous types.
Vi) Failures of badly placed or constructed parapets.
Vii) Damage to roof / lintel projections.
Viii) Damage to windows or window frames of the house connected incorrectly.

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